Wednesday 30 March 2011

PP Nomor 54 tahun 2010



Dengan adanya Peraturan Presiden Nomor 54 Tahun 2010 ini Keputusan Presiden Nomor 80 Tahun 2003 tentang Pedoman Pelaksanaan Pengadaan Barang/Jasa Pemerintah sebagaimana telah beberapa kali diubah terakhir dengan Peraturan Presiden Nomor 95 Tahun 2007, dicabut dan dinyatakan tidak berlaku sejak tanggal 1 Januari 2011.
Peraturan Presiden Nomor 54 Tahun 2010 Tentang Pengadaan Barang/Jasa Pemerintah secara lengkap dapat dideskripsikan seperti dibawah ini :
1. Peraturan Presiden Nomor 54 Tahun 2010
2. Penjelasan Atas Peraturan Presiden Nomor 54 Tahun 2010
3. Lampiran I : Perencanaan
4. Lampiran II : Barang
5. Lampiran III : Pekerjaan Konstruksi
6. Lampiran IV A : Jasa Konsultansi (Badan Usaha)
7. Lampiran IV B : Jasa Konsultansi (Perorangan)
8. Lampiran V : Jasa Lainnya
9. Lampiran VI : Swakelola

http://www.google.co.id/url?sa=t&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CBUQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.presidenri.go.id%2FDokumenUU.php%2F518.pdf&rct=j&q=pp%20nomor%2054%2F2010&ei=9OKSTdzQEYaEvAO0gvi8CA&usg=AFQjCNHD-C57CoSjUY6EoUG5nNhaCQLcRA&sig2=FAoPRItIBUdl5ilao2W0iQ&cad=rja

untuk Ganesha

Wahai anak cucu Adam! Pakailah pakaianmu yang bagus pada setiap (memasuki) masjid, makan, dan minumlah, tetapi jangan berlebihan. Sungguh Allah tidak menyukai orang yang berlebih-lebihan. (Q.S. Al A’raf : 31)

(Kami jelaskan yang demikian itu) supaya kamu jangan terlalu berduka cita terhadap apa yang luput darimu dan supaya kamu jangan terlalu gembira terhadap apa yang diberikanNya kepadamu. (Q.S. Al Hadid: 23)

Rasulullah bersabda:
“Tidaklah seorang mukmin ditimpa sebuah kesedihan, nestapa, bencana, derita, penyakit, hingga duri yang mengenai dirinya, kecuali Allah, dengannya, akan mengampuni kesalahan-kesalahannya.”

Dr. ‘Aidh Al-Qarni dalam buku La Tahzan menulis:
Berhentinya seorang mukmin dari beraktivitas adalah kelalaian. Kekosongan adalah musuh yang mematikan, dan kesenggangan adalah sebuah kemalasan. Dan, kebanyakan orang yang selalu gundah dan hidup dalam kecemasan adalah mereka yang terlalu banyak waktu senggangnya. Adapun manfaat yang mereka dapatkan dari semua itu adalah hanya sekedar desas-desus yang tak berguna.
Oleh sebab itu, hendaknya kamu senantiasa bergerak, bekerja, mencari, membaca, bertasbih, menulis, atau mengunjungi sahabat. Gunakan waktu sebaik-baiknya, dan jangan biarkan waktu terbuang sia-sia barang semenit saja. Ingat, sehari saja Anda tidak bergerak, niscaya kegundahan, keresahan godaan dan bisikan setan akan mudah menyelinap dalam tubuh Anda!

Dari saya:
Ya, cinta dan nafsu adalah bagian tak terpisahkan dari diri kita. Namun, kehidupan tidak melulu mengenai dua hal itu. Ada sahabat, ada ilmu pengetahuan, ada ibadah, ada orang tua, ada impian, ada kewajiban, ada deadline dan sebagainya. Banyak lho, dan kesemuanya itu sama pentingnya. Jadi, jika (seumpama) Anda tidak berhasil saat ini untuk urusan cinta dan nafsu, come on bro n sist!!! There’s a lot of things to do.

Dan yang terpenting, kata salah satu sahabat saya, “we love you, just the way you are”.

Terimakasih teruntuk Allah SWT dan Rasulullah SAW atas iman dan islam kami sampai saat ini, Dr.’Aidh Al-Qarni, serta sahabat saya yang mengatakan “we love you, just the way you are”.. (,")b

Tuesday 29 March 2011

my best bollywood movie ever


The movie Veer Zaara was released in year 2004. The film was directed by Yash Chopra and produced by Aditya Chopra and Yash Chopra.

Main actor and actresses in this movie Veer Zaara were Shahrukh Khan, Preity Zinta, Rani Mukerji, Kirron Kher and Divya Dutta.

The music director of Veer Zaara was Madan Mohan and Sanjeev Kohli and the songs of this film were sung by various playback singers like Lata Mangeshkar & Roop Kumar Rathod, Udit Narayan, Ahmed Hussain & Mohd. Hussain.
The songs of Movie Veer Zaara are as follows:

* Aaya Tere Dar Per Deewana
* Aisa Des Hai Mera
* Tere Liye
* Do Pal Ki
* Hum To Bhai Jaise Hein
* Jaane Kyun Khwabon Ka
* Kyun Hawa
* Tere Qurban Jawan
* Tum Paas Aa Rahe Ho
* Ye Hum Aa Gaye Hain Kahan
* Jaanam Dekh Lo Milt Gayi


Review from The New York Times
To appreciate the Bollywood tear-jerker "Veer-Zaara,'' you have to accept the possibility that a morose prisoner who has not said a word in 22 years would, upon meeting a beautiful young lawyer who calls him by his name rather than his number, not just break his silence but also immediately pour forth more than three hours worth of his story.

If "Veer-Zaara'' were an American television movie, it would be embraced as fabulously trashy. For its home audience in India, this romance (with the requisite splashy musical numbers) is a Romeo and Juliet story about partition and tolerance; the heroine is Pakistani and the hero Indian. It is also a teaming of three of India's biggest movie stars, guided by the 72-year-old Pakistani-born Indian director Yash Chopra.

The love story, a long flashback, begins in Lahore, Pakistan, with our perky rich-girl ingénue, Zaara Hayat Khan (Preity Zinta), singing and dancing around the house like Ann-Margret in "Bye Bye Birdie" about how she is never going to change her style for anybody. She is about to get engaged to a man chosen by her prominent, politically ambitious father, but she'll think about that later.

Meanwhile, our salt-of-the-earth hero, Veer Pratap Singh (Shah Rukh Khan), a handsome helicopter pilot with the Indian Air Force, is busy rescuing people stranded in the mountains. The two might never have met if Zaara's Sikh nanny had not died, exacting a promise that her ashes be immersed in her native India. When Zaara's bus crashes on her way to keep that promise, she is among the passengers Veer rescues. After an initial misunderstanding, he joins her on her sentimental mission and takes her home to meet the family (conveniently, it's a holiday).
Amitabh Bachchan is charm personified in a special appearance as the uncle who brought up Veer. In the course of one day, Veer and Zaara fall in intense, irrevocable, karmic-destiny-transcending love, although Zaara doesn't fully realize it until her hideous fiancé meets her at the train station. After that, the gods test the young lovers, things get ridiculously melodramatic, and people behave so nobly that moviegoers may want to scream.

For once, that thundering soap-opera music (which makes a Douglas Sirk movie score seem subtle) is welcome; it drowns out any embarrassing audience sniffles.
When Veer finishes telling his story, his novice lawyer, Saamiya Siddiqui (Rani Mukherjee, the film's third megastar), vows to prove his innocence, and the movie turns into a courtroom drama. During a recess, Saamiya goes off on a Perry Mason-style evidence-collecting trip, which yields a highly satisfying surprise ending.

Seasoned Bollywood fans will be in heaven, so to speak. Other American moviegoers, who find the Indian film industry's tastes a little over the top, may not be able to get past cinematic devices that seem shamefully obvious, but over-the-top is part of the fun. In Bollywood, a single musical number can move through a dozen different settings with as many glamorous wardrobe changes. It also seems to rain a lot during musical numbers (some strange Gene Kelly influence?). When Saamiya asks of the star-crossed lovers, "What century are these people from?'' she means it as a compliment. Yet the cultural assumptions of Veer and Zaara add a welcome element of freshness for American audiences. When Zaara's mother reminds her daughter that women always love fully, with heart and soul, she casually adds, "Men don't have the strength to love like that.''
'Veer-Zaara'

Directed by Yash Chopra; written (in Hindi, with English subtitles) by Aditya Chopra; director of photography, Anil Mehta; edited by Ritesh Soni; music by Madan Mohan, with lyrics by Javed Akhtar; choreography by Saroj Khan and Vaibhavi Merchant; production designer, Sharmishta Roy; produced by Yash Chopra and Aditya Chopra; released by Yash Raj Films. Running time: 195 minutes. This film is not rated.
WITH: Shah Rukh Khan (Veer Pratap Singh), Preity Zinta (Zaara Hayaat Khan) and Rani Mukherji (Saamiya Siddiqui).

http://www.4shared.com/audio/xVqBkKw6/04_veer-zaara_-_dopal.html

Monday 28 March 2011

Tour de BPK

“bahwa ternyata, BOLANG tidak hanya melulu ada di pelosok2 daerah seperti Gunungk*dul, Wono*iri, Pa*ua, atau yang lainnya..”



Akibat terlalu lama berada dalam ketidakjelasan menunggu surat survey, atas usulan banyak teman akhirnya saya coba mendatangi BPK pusat di Jl. Gatot Subroto untuk mengajukan permohonan permintaan data berupa Laporan Hasil Pemeriksaan Pemerintah BPK terhadap LKPD Kota Mojokerto TA 2007-2009.

Ya, setelah mengajak beberapa teman akhirnya kami berenam (ode, lambok, andy, saya, temannya lambok, dan temannya teman lambok) berangkat ke sana naik KRL. Wah.. bicara soal KRL, saya pernah kesasar. Padahal mau ke tanah abang, malah naik kereta ke barat ke arah serpong. Ah, jangan dibicarakan di sini. Malu, membuka aib. Hehe.

Oke, asumsikan perjalanan kereta kami lancar tanpa hambatan. Di stasiun palmerah kami turun. Setelah berjalan sedikit, sampailah kami di gedung pusat Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan Republik Indonesia (ditulis lengkap biar efeknya dramatis: sayang, tanpa diiringi lagu seriosanya andrea bocheli). Namanya gedung Umar Wirahadikusuma (saya tidak kenal, mungkin beliau orang hebat yang menjabat sebelum saya lahir).

Ya, setelah selesai dengan urusan kami di bagian humas lt.5 (info bagi teman-teman, kalau ingin mengajukan permintaan data juga, alamatnya di web resmi BPK). Ternyata, pegawai-pegawai di sana baik sekali. Murah senyum, ganteng-ganteng dan cantik-cantik (perasaan saya saja mungkin ya? Karena saya sudah mengincar penempatan BPK dari dulu.. kan “anda, adalah apa yang anda pikirkan..”). tapi enggak juga kok.. di Pemda mojokerto saya nggak terlalu mendapat respon permintaan data yang positif juga.

Ya, setelah selesai dari lt.5, kami memutuskan untuk berpisah. Temannya lambok dan temannya teman lambok pulang naik KRL lagi, sementara kami berempat main ke perpus BPK. Haha, ternyata kalau masuk gedung yang ada perpusnya harus pakai kartu pegawai BPK lho.. jadi kami nggak bisa masuk karena tentunya kartu mahasiswa STAN nggak akan cukup keren untuk membuka pintu otomatis itu. Yap, akhirnya kami menguntit pegawai BPK yang mau masuk ke sana. Alhamdulillah, bisa masuk tanpa bunyi alarm. Hehe. Kok kami nggak berpikir ya, “gimana kalau nanti pas mau keluar gedung nggak ada orang?”. (untungnya kalau keluar, pintu membuka otomatis, dasar ndeso..!)

Sesampainya di perpus, kami sok-sok membaca, ujung-ujungnya baca Koran juga. Karena kami hampir tidak berhasil menemukan apa yang kami cari (memangnya mau cari apa? Lha wong kami juga nggak tahu). Setelah jenuh di perpus, ceile jenuh, tiba-tiba temanku nyeletuk, gimana kalau ke Monas, kan belum pernah naik ke puncaknya? Tanpa pikir panjang kami langsung setuju semua.

Singkat cerita, kami naik busway ke monas. Dan biasalah, apa sih yang dilakukan oleh remaja puber (haha, sok muda, ingat umur naak..) seperti kami kalau nggak foto-foto? Mulai dari gaya loncat, jempol, sok cool, sampai nyengir kepanasan.

...
Ternyata oh ternyata, hari ini adalah hari keberuntungan kami. Setiap senin minggu ke empat dalam sebulan, monas tutup. Dan sekarang adalah senin 28 Maret. Jadinya, dengan hampa kami berjalan pulang. (eh, masih sempat foto2 lagi lho.. coba kameranya lebih bagus, bisa-bisa sampai ashar kami tetap di sana, hehe). Selepas itu, kami menuju Musium Nasional. Maunya sih ke Istana Negara, tapi takut libur juga. Eh sayangnya, museum Nasional juga tutup setiap hari senin. Hmm, mungkin gara-gara kami belum solat dzuhur. Akhirnya, kami ke Gedung Kementerian Komunikasi dan Informatika untuk numpang solat. Kami pastikan mereka nggak tutup juga.

Lalu, setelah itu, langkah kami menjadi ringan. Haha, apa sih?

Kami pun memutuskan untuk pulang via busway blok M. di Blok M kami mampir ke supermarket. Beli apa coba? Yang pertama jelas minum, yang kedua, sabun Life*uoy. Tiba2 saja keingat kalau tadi pagi aku mandi Cuma pakai sabun sisa yang udah kecil-kecil. Haha.

Dan pulanglah kami dari perjalanan nggak jelas. Lumayan, hitung2, hari ini kami bisa menampik sebutan sebagai “pengangguran akuntansi”. Dan satu lagi kesimpulan yang bisa kita ambil dari kisah di atas..

“bahwa ternyata, BOLANG tidak hanya melulu ada di pelosok2 daerah seperti Gunungk*dul, Wono*iri, Pa*ua, atau yang lainnya..”

PS: untuk yang tertipu dengan judul Tour de BPK, maaf ya.. ^^.

Sunday 27 March 2011

50 WAYS OF TIME MANAGING

50 Cara Mengatur Waktu
Written by: Ja Woon Young

Oleh-oleh dari Gramedia BinPlas




1. Bangun pagi, siapkan waktu 10 menit untuk mengatur pekerjaan hari ini.
2. Buatlah jadwal kegiatan.
3. Jangan ditunda, segera kerjakan.
4. Pasang konsentrasi dalam melakukan pekerjaan apapun.
5. Belajar di keas, akan terasa lebih menyenangkan bila telah dipersiapkan sebelumnya.
6. Segera kerjakan PR begitu sampai di rumah.
7. Gunakan waktu luang sebaik-baiknya.
8. Sediakan waktu luang.
9. Dengan menulis buku harian, setiap hari bisa diatur dengan baik.
10. Sediakan waktu belajar ekstra untuk mata pelajaran yang kurang dikuasai.
11. Kalau main internet, jangan sampai lupa waktu.
12. Sebelum nonton TV, cek dulu apa yang akan kamu lihat.
13. Biasakan selalu membuat memo.
14. Sesuaikan waktumu dengan kondisi.
15. Lakukan hal yang berguna, jangan sia-siakan waktumu!
16. Buatlah variasi jadwal kegiatan saat liburan.
17. Lakukan 5 menit lebih awal dan 5 menit lebih lama dibandingkan orang lain.
18. Datanglah tepat waktu.
19. Jangan menjadi budak waktu.
20. Walaupun sibuk, jangan tergesa-gesa.
21. Tetap kerjakan kewajibanmu dengan hati lapang.
22. Pergi kemanapun selalu pakailah jam tangan.
23. Tidur lebih awal, bangun lebih awal.
24. Bertemanlah dengan anak rajin.
25. Jangan lupakan paribahasa “waktu adalah uang”.
26. Focus pada hal yang sedang dikerjakan.
27. Ketika melakukan sesuatu pekerjaan yang penting, sediakan waktu untuk berpikir sebelumnya.
28. Dengan membuat tujuan, manajemen waktu akan terasa menyenangkan.
29. Jangan membuang-buang waktu untuk hal yang tidak bisa kita kerjakan.
30. Tolaklah dengan tegas hal yang harus ditolak.
31. Mintalah bantuan kalau kita tidak bisa melakukannya sendiri.
32. Hindari keinginan mempelajari banyak hal sekaligus.
33. Belajarlah untuk mencari informasi dengan cepat.
34. Memulai sesuai rencana, selesai sesuai rencana.
35. Kerjakan mulai dari yang terpenting.
36. Kebiasaan ma;as harus diubah.
37. Kita akan menghemat waktu dengan membereskan barang.
38. Carilah hal yang kita sukai.
39. Buatlah rencana dalam kehidupanmu.
40. Hindari melakukan kesalahan yang sama.
41. Jangan mendiskon waktu dengan kesehatan.
42. Catatlah hari penting dan ulang tahun keluarga/teman teman dekat.
43. Luangkan waktu dalam sehari untuk menolong orang lebih dari sekali.
44. Belajarlah dari kebijakan para leluhur: “berhentilah walau masih merasa kurang puas”.
45. Lakukanlah bersama orang lain agar lebih efisien.
46. Kalau memungkinkan lakukan dua pekerjaan sekaligus.
47. Bicarakanlah rencana kita pada orang tua atau saudara.
48. Cintailah diri kita.
49. Sediakan waktu untuk membaca buku.
50. Jangan takut dengan perubahan waktu.

Friday 25 March 2011

MINISTRY OF FINANCE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA
THE EDUCATION AND TRAINING BOARD OF THE MINISTRY OF FINANCE
STATE COLLEGE OF ACCOUNTING
TANGERANG


ENGLISH PAPER

CONTEMPLATION OF CURRENCY REDENOMINATION AS A SOLUTION OF ECONOMIC PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

By:
SANDA ADITYA ARSANDI
NPM: 08360015466
February 2011

Preface


Bismillahirrahmanirrahim,
Alhamdulillahirabbilalamin, finally my English paper can be completed. First, I would like to thank to Alloh SWT for all gift I have got. Whether it was leisure time, healthy, opportunity, and many others, I am really helped because of your easiness, God.
This English paper used to fulfill some of requisites to pass English subject in 5th semester in State College of Accounting 2011. Beside that, this paper is a medium to boost the writer knowledge and writing ability.
In this chance, I would like to say thank you for:
1. My mother and all of my family, especially my sister, which always give abundant love for every step I take. I hope someday can give more to all of you.
2. Mr. Ahmad Waran, as my English lecturer. I wish we (3U Accounting) could realize your hope, seeing us continue our master abroad. For me my self, I still confuse whether Queensland, Illinois, or Singapore.
3. My beloved friends in 3U, 2H, and 1G Accounting. It was an unforgettable moments can take a part experience three year with them. You rock guys!
4. My siblings. Dani Setiahadi, Dwi Sriwahyuni, Rafika Wilda, Surya Setipanol, and Fitri Ani Nur Mushlihatun. For every second you cheer me.
5. And all lecturer and employee in this dream college.
I believe there are a lot of mistakes inside this paper. That is why, I beg for your apologize and I hope this paper can be usefully give some idea about redenomination.



Tangerang, 10 February 2011
Writer,

Sanda Aditya Arsandi
















CONTENTS

Page
COVER
PREFACE
CONTENTS
DRAFT OF APPENDIX
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
A. Background
B. Writing Objective
C. Problem Limitation
D. Method of Source Collection
E. Writing Systematic
CHAPTER II SOURCES AND FACTS
A. General Description about Developing Countries
1. Classification of a Country
2. Definition of Developing Countries
3. Measure and Concept of Development
4. Example of Developing Countries
B. General Description about Currency
1. Definition of Foreign Currency
2. Foreign Currency Concepts
(a) Direct and Indirect Quotation of Exchange Rates
(b) Floating, Fixed, and Multiple Exchange Rates
3. Foreign Currency Transactions
C. General Description about Economic Problems
1. Inflation
2. Deflation
3. Recession
4. Stagflation
CHAPTER III REDENOMINATION OF A CURENCY AS A SOLUTION OF ECONOMICS PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
A. Redenomination Theory
1. Definition
2. History
B. Factors influencing Redenomination Credibility
CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion
B. Suggestion
SELECTED READINGS
APPENDIX









DRAFT OF APPENDIX

APENDIX 1: List of emerging and developing economies
APENDIX 2: Table 1: NAME OF CURRENCY
APENDIX 3: List of countries by Gross National Income per capita in 2009
APENDIX 4: Table 2: Inflationary Episodes and Redenomination Outcomes















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background
Since 1960, governments of developing and transition economies have redenominated their currencies on approximately seventy occasions. These redenomination generally involve reducing the value of the currency by a factor of ten. For instance, in January 2005, Turkey replaced its currency (the Lira) with the .New Turkish Lira (YTL), with a conversion rate of one million old liras to one new lira. And in July, Romania introduced a new, heavy version of its currency, the lieu, with four fewer zeros. In both cases, governments noted that redenomination would send a signal to citizens, as well as to the international community, that economic policy mistakes were in the past.
While decisions about the denomination and design of currencies may seem more technical than political, a government’s control and administration of its currency and, more broadly, of transactions within its boundaries -- is one of the hallmarks of the modern nation-state. Governments began to achieve such monetary control in the mid-nineteenth century; today, many struggle to maintain this control, particularly in the face of civil conflict or economic collapse. Currency redenomination, then, may come as part of a broad package of economic and political reforms, as was the case in Afghanistan in October 2002; following years of decline in the currency’s value, a new Afghani was introduced, with three zeros removed. This introduction was meant to herald, along with a series of other measures, the emergence of Afghanistan from years of civil conflict, and its movement toward modern nationhood.
Currency redenomination also can be a means by which governments attempt to reassert monetary sovereignty. If citizens lose confidence in the national currency, they may begin to use foreign currencies, particularly those with greater prestige. This may be both a psychological and an economic blow to the government: with widespread foreign currency substitution (or, more extremely, full dollarization), the central bank no longer controls the money supply, rendering it unable to provide lender of last resort functions (Cohen 2004). Economic policy is influenced not only by international capital markets (e.g. Mosley 2003), but also by foreign central banks. Currency redenomination, then, is a means by which governments can attempt to reverse this currency substituting behavior: if citizens are confident that the new Turkish lira will hold its value, they may be willing to shift from using Euros and dollars to using lira. While the act of dividing a currency’s value by a factor of ten is somewhat symbolic, it also can help to convince citizens of a currency’s worth. As a result, redenomination often occurs after economic crises, as governments attempt to convince citizens and markets that hyperinflation is a thing of the past. In some cases, the timing is correct, in that redenomination caps off high levels of inflation. In other cases, governments are not able to reign in inflation immediately after redenomination, and they may make multiple efforts at currency reform. Argentina and Brazil during the 1980s and early 1990s exemplify this pattern.
Yet not every country with high levels of inflation, or with a low local currency/dollar exchange rate (so that thousands of local currency units are required for everyday transactions), chooses to redenominate its currency. Some governments are content for citizens to spend two thousand lira or manta for a cup of coffee, even if this leads citizens to question the legitimacy of the local currency. In other cases, governments do choose to redenominate, but only after a sustained period during which inflation has been reigned in; the time between hyperinflation and redenomination, then, may stretch to over a decade. Were redenomination a purely technocratic exercise, this pattern would be surprising: redenomination seems to have few real costs, beyond the short-run expense of printing new notes and advertising the change to citizens and financial markets.

B. Writing Objective
The purpose that the writer wants to get is:
1. To fulfill pre requirement of final English assignment in 5th semester State College of Accounting 2011.
2. To add and improve knowledge about economics that become the main subject during study in State College of Accounting and also apply that esoteric knowledge in facts which is happened surroundings.
3. To know what is kind of economics problems in developing countries.
4. To assemble the fact about advantage of redenomination that is implemented in developing countries like Indonesia.
5. To analyze what kind of factors that decide critical success point for redenomination in a nation especially developing ones.
6. As a consideration and reference for all readers that has importance whit this paper.

C. Problem Limitations
In this paper, the writer limits the scope to the economics problems only that has relation with redenomination. Actually, there are a lot of economics problem that was faced by countries in this era, but to simplify of writing method, the writer just make some sample in developing nations. The sources are taken until 2010 condition because the writer had not found the newest source yet in internet or other literature.

D. Method of Source Collection
In arrange this paper, the writer use a method to get relevant and reliable source with problems that will be discussed in this paper. The method is Library Research that that the writer will try to collect, read, scans, and examines a lot of literature, research paper, article in website, and also lecturing material which has relation with this paper. Beside that, the writer enrich the Library Research method with ask any opinion from some experts in economics.

E. Writing Systematic
This paper divide into 4 headline chapter, i.e.:
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
This chapter contains the general description of paper like background, writing objective, problem limitation, method of source collections, and writing systematic.
CHAPTER II SOURCE AND FACTS
This chapter will explain about source and facts of each word that arrange the topic discussed. It is consist of general description about developing countries, foreign currency, and also economics problem which is often faced by developing countries.
CHAPTER III REDENOMINATION OF A CURENCY AS A SOLUTION OF ECONOMICS PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
In this chapter the writer will elaborate some facts about redenomination and it’s capability in solving economics problems in developing nations. Beside that, this chapter contains explanation that support how success redenomination to be implemented in a country.
CHAPTER IV CONCLUSSION AND SUGESTION
This chapter is conclusion of whole chapter and also some suggestion that may be useful for related readers.










CHAPTER II
SOURCE AND FACTS

A. General Description about Developing Countries
1. Classification of a Country
The world is divided into those countries that are industrialized, have political and economic stability, and have high levels of human health, and those countries that do not. The way we identify these countries has changed and evolved over the years as we have moved through the Cold War-era and into the modern age; however, it remains that there is no consensus as to how we should classify countries by their development status.
First, Second, Third, and Fourth World Countries
The designation of "Third World" countries was created by Alfred Sauvy, a French demographer, in an article that he wrote for the French magazine, L'Observateur in 1952, after World War II and during the Cold War-era. The terms "First World," "Second World," and "Third World" countries were used to differentiate between democratic countries, communist countries, and those countries that did not align with democratic or communist countries. The terms have since evolved to refer to levels of development, but they have become outdated and are no longer used to distinguish between countries that are considered developed versus those that are considered developing.
First World described the NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) countries and their allies, which were democratic, capitalist and industrialized. The First World included most of North America and Western Europe, Japan, and Australia.
Second World described the communist-socialist states. These countries were, like First World countries, industrialized. The Second world included the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, and China.
Third World described those countries that did not align with either the First World or Second World countries after World War II and generally described less-developed countries. The Third World included the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
Fourth World was coined in the 1970s, referring to the nations of indigenous people that live within a country. These groups often face discrimination and forced assimilation. They are among the poorest in the world.
Global North and Global South
The terms "Global North" and "Global South" divide the world in half both geographically with the Global North meaning all countries north of the equator in the Northern Hemisphere and the Global South being all of the countries south of the equator in the Southern Hemisphere. This classification groups the Global North into the rich northern countries, and the Global South into the poor southern countries. This differentiation is based on the fact that most of developed countries are in the north and most of the developing or underdeveloped countries are in the south. The issue with this classification is that not all countries in the Global North can be called "developed" while some of the countries in the Global South can be called developed.
In the Global North, some examples of the developing countries include: Haiti, Nepal, Afghanistan, and many of the countries in northern Africa.
In the Global South, some examples of the well-developed countries include: Australia, South Africa, and Chile.
MDCs and LDCs
MDC stands for More Developed Country and LDC stands for Least Developed Country. The terms MDCs and LDCs are most commonly used by geographers. This classification is a broad generalization but it can be useful in grouping countries based on factors including their GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita, political and economic stability, and human health, as measured by the Human Development Index (HDI). While there is debate as to at what GDP threshold an LDC becomes and MDC, in general, a country is considered an MDC when it has a GDP per capita of more than US $4000, along with a high HDI ranking and economic stability.
Developed and Developing Countries
The most commonly used terms to describe and differentiate between countries are "developed" and "developing" countries. Developed countries describes the countries with the highest level of development based on similar factors to those used to distinguish between MDCs and LDCs, as well as based on levels of industrialization. These terms are the most frequently used and the most politically correct however, there is really no actual standard by which we name and group these countries. The implication of the terms developed and developing is that developing countries will attain developed status as some point in the future.

2. Definitions of Developing Countries
There is a lot of criticism of the use term “developing country”. The term implies inferiority of a developing country compared to a “developed country”, which many countries dislike. It assumes a desire to develop along the traditional western model of economic development which a few countries, such as Cuba and North Korea, have chosen not to follow.
The term “developing” implies mobility and does not acknowledge that development may be in decline or static in some countries. In such cases, the term developing country may be considered a euphemism. The term implies homogeneity within such countries when wealth (and health) of the most and least affluent groups varies widely.
Based from definition in Wikipedia, “developing country is a term generally used to describe a nation with a low level of material well-being”. Since no single definition of the term developed country is recognized internationally, the levels of development may vary widely within so-called developing countries. Some developing countries have high average standard of living. Poorly developed countries are often known as third world countries.
Kofi Annan, former Secretary General of the UN, defined a developed country as one that allows its entire citizen to enjoy a free and healthy life in safe environment. But according to the United Nations Statistic Division, there is no established convention for the designation of “developed” and “developing” countries or areas in the United Nations System. It is also notes that the designations “developed” and “developing” are intended for statistical convenience and do not necessarily express a judgment about the stage reached by a particular country or area in the development process.
In general, development entails a modern infrastructure (both physical and institutional), and a move away from low value added sectors such as agriculture and natural resource extraction. Developed countries, in comparison, usually have economic systems based on continuous, self-sustaining economic growth in the tertiary sector of the economy and quaternary sector of the economy and high material standards of living. However, there are notable exceptions, as some countries considered developed have a significant component of primary industries in their national economies, e.g. Norway, Canada, and Australia. The USA and Western Europe have a very important agricultural sector; both are major players in international agricultural markets. Also, natural resource extraction can be a very profitable industry (high value added) e.g. oil extraction.

3. Measure and Concepts of Development
The IMF uses a flexible classification system that considers
(1) Per capita income level, see appendix 2 to know GNI per capita 2009
(2) Export diversification—so oil exporters that have high per capita GDP would not make the advanced classification because around 70% of its exports are oil,
(3) Degree of integration into the global financial system.
The World Bank classifies countries into four income groups. These are set each year on July 1. Economies were divided according to 2008 GNI per capita using the following ranges of income.
• Low income countries had GNI per capita of US$975 or less.
• Lower middle income countries had GNI per capita between US$976 and US$3,855.
• Upper middle income countries had GNI per capita between US$3,856 and US$11,905.
• High income countries had GNI above US$11,906.

The World Bank classifies all low- and middle-income countries as developing but notes, "The use of the term is convenient; it is not intended to imply that all economies in the group are experiencing similar development or that other economies have reached a preferred or final stage of development. Classification by income does not necessarily reflect development status.
The development of a country is measured with statistical indexes such as income per capita (per person) (GDP), life expectancy, the rate of literacy, et cetera. The UN has developed the HDI, a compound indicator of the above statistics, to gauge the level of human development for countries where data is available.
Developing countries are in general countries which have not achieved a significant degree of industrialization relative to their populations, and which have, in most cases a medium to low standard of living. There is a strong correlation between low income and high population growth.
The terms utilized when discussing developing countries refer to the intent and to the constructs of those who utilize these terms. Other terms sometimes used are less developed countries (LDCs), least economically developed countries (LEDCs), "underdeveloped nations" or Third World nations, and "non-industrialized nations". Conversely, the opposite end of the spectrum is termed developed countries, most economically developed countries (MEDCs), First World nations and "industrialized nations".
To moderate the euphemistic aspect of the word developing, international organizations have started to use the term Less economically developed country (LEDCs) for the poorest nations which can in no sense be regarded as developing. That is, LEDCs are the poorest subset of LDCs. This may moderate against a belief that the standard of living across the entire developing world is the same.
The concept of the developing nation is found, under one term or another, in numerous theoretical systems having diverse orientations — for example, theories of decolonization, liberation theology, Marxism, anti-imperialism, and political economy.

4. Example of Developing Countries
Countries are often loosely placed into four categories of development. Each category includes the countries listed in their respective article. The term "developing nation" is not a label to assign a specific, similar type of problem.
1. Newly industrialized countries (NICs) are nations with economies more advanced and developed than those in the developing world, but not yet with the full signs of a developed country. NIC is a category between developed and developing countries. It includes Brazil, China, India, Malaysia, Mexico, Philippines, South Africa, Thailand and Turkey.
2. The Advanced Emerging Markets are: Brazil, Hungary, Mexico, Poland, South Africa and Taiwan.
3. Countries with long-term civil war or large-scale breakdown of rule of law ("failed states") (e.g. Democratic Republic of Congo, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia) or non-development-oriented dictatorship (North Korea, Myanmar and Zimbabwe).
4. Some developing countries have been classified as "Developed countries" such as Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Barbados, Brunei, Equatorial Guinea, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and Trinidad and Tobago by the World Bank.
See the appendix 1 to know list of emerging and developing economies.

B. General Description about Currency

1. Definition of Foreign Currency
Based from Thesaurus dictionary:
“Currency - the metal or paper medium of exchange that is presently used medium of exchange, monetary system - anything that is generally accepted as a standard of value and a measure of wealth in a particular country or region money - the official currency issued by a government or national bank.”

Currencies provide a standard of value, a medium of exchange, and unit of measure for economic transactions. Currencies of different countries perform the first two functions with varying degrees of efficiency, but essentially all currencies provide a unit of measure for the economic activities and resources of their respective countries.
For transactions to be included in financial records, they must be measured in a currency. Typically, the currency that a transaction is recorded in and the currency needed to settle the transaction are the same.
See appendix 2 to know kind of currency.

2. Foreign Currency Concepts
a. Direct and Indirect Quotation of Exchange Rates
An exchange rate is the ratio between a unit of one currency and the amount of another currency for which that unit can be exchanged (converted) at a particular time. The exchange rate can be computed directly or indirectly.
• direct quotation: Home Currency / Foreign Currency
• indirect quotation: Foreign Currency / Home Currency
b. Floating, Fixed, and Multiple Exchange Rates
Exchange rates may be fixed by a governmental unit or may be allowed to fluctuate (float) with changes in the currency markets. Official or fixed exchange rates are set by government and do not change as a result of changes in world currency markets. Free or floating exchange rates are those that reflect fluctuating market price for a currency based on supply and demand and other factors in the world currency markets.
1) Floating Exchange Rates
Theoretically, a currency’s value should reflect its buying power in world markets. For example, an increase in a country’s inflation rate indicates that its currency’s purchasing power is decreasing. The currency’s value should fall in relation to other currencies. The technical term for this movement in currency value is weakening. A currency falls, or weakens, relative to another currency if it takes more of that currency to purchase one unit of the other currency.
A large trade surplus (the amount of exports exceeds imports) indicates an increased demand for a country’s currency, since many of those export sales must be paid in the exporting country’s currency. The exporting country’s currency become more valuable relative to the importing countries currencies, or strengthens. A currency strengthens relative to another currency if it takes fewer of that currency to purchase one unit of the other currency.
2) Fixed and Multiple Exchange Rates
When exchange rates are fixed, the issuing government is able to set (fix) different kinds of transactions. For example, it may set a preferential rate for imports (or certain kind of imports) and penalty rates for exports (or certain kind of exports) in order to promote the economic objective of the country. Such rates are referred to as multiple exchange rates.

3. Foreign Currency Transaction
In the case of transactions between business entities of different countries, the amounts receivable and payable are ordinarily denominated in the local currency of either the buying entity or the selling entity. Sometimes the amounts are denominated in the currency of a third country whose currency is relatively more stable than the currency of either the buyer or the seller.
For example, if a U.S. firm sells merchandise to an Indonesian firm, the transaction amount will be denominated (fixed) in either U.S. Dollars or Indonesian Rupiahs, even though the U.S. firm will measure and record its account receivable and sales in U.S. dollars and Indonesian firm will measure and record its purchase and account payable in Indonesian Rupiahs.
If the transactions denominated in IDR, the U.S. firm has to determine how many U.S. dollars the transaction represents in order to record it. If the transaction is denominated in U.S. dollars, the Indonesian firm has to determine how many IDR the transaction represents. To measure the transaction in their own currencies, business around the world relies on exchange rates negotiated on a continuous basis in world currency markets. Exchange rates are essentially prices for currencies expressed in units of other currencies.
The foreign exchange markets are usually highly liquid as the main international banks continually provide the market with both bid (buy) and ask (sell) offers. The volume of trading in the foreign exchange markets exceeds that in any other market, liquidity is extremely high.
In the foreign exchange markets there is little or no 'inside information'. Rate fluctuations are usually to do with world economy or the national economies so significant news is released publicly so, at least in theory, everyone in the world receives the same news at the same time. This is in contrast to the equity market where a stock may lose value by 5% or more, and only later do the reasons for this become apparent when a newspaper reports that forecasts for that company have been revised downward, or that a key executive has resigned (this is why insider trading in stock markets can be a problem).
Top 7 Most Traded Currencies
Rank Currency Code
1 United States Dollar USD
2 Japanese Yen JPY
3 EU Euro EUR
4 Canadian Dollar CAD
5 British Pound Sterling GBP
6 Australian Dollar AUD
7 Swiss Franc CHF

Big foreign exchange trading centre are located in New York, Tokyo, London, Hong Kong, Singapore, Paris and Frankfurt amongst others and the foreign exchange market is open 24 hours per day throughout the week (closing worldwide Friday afternoon and reopening Sunday afternoon). If the European Market is closed the Asian Market or U.S. will be open on the other and so all world currencies can be continually in trade. Traders can react to news when it breaks, rather than waiting for the market to open, as is the case with most other markets. This enables traders to take positions anticipating the impact on the exchange rate of important news items.
In the foreign exchange markets there is never a 'bear' market. Currencies are traded in pairs; every trade involves the selling of one currency and the buying of another. If some currencies are going down, others must be going up.
C. General Description about Economic Problems
1. Inflation
Inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the general price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services. Consequently, inflation also reflects erosion in the purchasing power of money – a loss of real value in the internal medium of exchange and unit of account in the economy. A chief measure of price inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index (normally the Consumer Price Index) over time.
Inflation's effects on an economy are various and can be simultaneously positive and negative. Negative effects of inflation include a decrease in the real value of money and other monetary items over time, uncertainty over future inflation may discourage investment and savings, and high inflation may lead to shortages of goods if consumers begin hoarding out of concern that prices will increase in the future. Positive effects include ensuring central banks can adjust nominal interest rates (intended to mitigate recessions), and encouraging investment in non-monetary capital projects.
Economists generally agree that high rates of inflation and hyperinflation are caused by an excessive growth of the money supply. Views on which factors determine low to moderate rates of inflation are more varied. Low or moderate inflation may be attributed to fluctuations in real demand for goods and services, or changes in available supplies such as during scarcities, as well as to growth in the money supply. However, the consensus view is that a long sustained period of inflation is caused by money supply growing faster than the rate of economic growth.
Today, most mainstream economists favor a low, steady rate of inflation. Low (as opposed to zero or negative) inflation may reduce the severity of economic recessions by enabling the labor market to adjust more quickly in a downturn, and reduce the risk that a liquidity trap prevents monetary policy from stabilizing the economy. The task of keeping the rate of inflation low and stable is usually given to monetary authorities. Generally, these monetary authorities are the central banks that control the size of the money supply through the setting of interest rates, through open market operations, and through the setting of banking reserve requirements.
2. Deflation
Deflation is when asset and consumer prices continue to fall. This may seem like a great thing to consumers, except that the cause for deflation is a long-term drop in demand. Unfortunately, a drop in demand means that a recession is already underway, with job losses, declining wages, and an ongoing decline in the value of your home and your stock portfolio. Deflation is a result of businesses dropping prices in a desperate attempt to get people to buy their products.
3. Recession
A recession is when GDP growth slows, businesses stop expanding, employment falls, unemployment rises, and housing prices decline.
The textbook definition of a recession states GDP growth must be negative for two consecutive quarters or more. This is certainly true of this recession, which had three consecutive quarters of negative GDP growth.
For all practical purposes, a recession starts when there are several quarters of slowing but still positive growth. Often a quarter of negative growth will occur, following by positive growth for several quarters, and then another quarter of negative growth.

4. Stagflation
Stagflation is when the economy experiences slow GDP growth (stagnation) with high inflation. When the economy is working normally, stagnant economic growth reduces demand, which keeps prices low, preventing inflation. Stagflation can only occur when fiscal or monetary policy sustains high prices, and inflation, despite slow growth.
CHAPTER III
REDENOMINATION OF A CURENCY AS A SOLUTION OF ECONOMICS PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

A. Redenomination Theory

1. Definition
Redenomination is the process where a "new" unit of currency replaces the "old" unit with a certain ratio. This means that the currency changes from the "old" currency to a "new" one, which are often worth 1000, 10,000, 100,000, or 1 million units of the old currency.
2. History
Redenomination has a long history: in the 19th century, when governments faced shortages of gold or silver, they sometimes adjusted the value of their coins accordingly. Among developing and transition nations, currency redenomination was employed on 60 occasions during the 1960-2003 period.2 These redenomination varied in size, from removing one zero from the currency (14 instances) to removing six zeros (9 instances); the median redenomination was three zeros, dividing the currency by 1000. Nineteen countries have used redenomination on one occasion, while ten countries have redenominated twice (sometimes, with many years in between, as in Bolivia, in 1963 and 1987; in other cases, redenomination follow rather quickly, as in Peru in 1985 and 1991). Argentina (4), the former Yugoslavia/Serbia (5), and Brazil (6) are the most frequent users of redenomination.
Table 1 demonstrates significant variation in terms of the way in which redenomination is employed. The table lists the country-years in the dataset during which annual inflation exceeds 100 percent; some of these country-years are clearly hyperinflationary, while others are more moderate instances. In some cases, as in Argentina in 1992, redenomination marks the culmination of dramatic economic reform packages; by the time governments redenominated, they have addressed the monetary policy problems that generated the large local currency to dollar ratios. In other nations (e.g. Chile, Croatia), redenomination comes during, not after, the economic stabilization process. In still other cases, particularly those marked by long-running civil conflicts (Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nicaragua), redenomination are employed, perhaps repeatedly, but high rates of inflation persist afterward. And not all periods of high inflation generate a subsequent redenomination: Ghana in the late 1970s and early 1980s and Indonesia in the late 1960s are two examples.
Many nations with high levels of inflation also have relatively lowly valued local currencies, making large denomination currencies necessary for basic transactions in the economy. While it is high or hyperinflation that often causes this situation, the presence of large-denomination notes may be the most obvious sign to citizens of a potential need for redenomination. In Argentina in the 1960s, for instance, one US dollar was equivalent to 1,100 (1962) to 3500 (1969) Argentine pesos moneda nacional. The 1970 redenomination addressed this issue, removing two zeros while creating the peso ley. And in the early 1980s, one US dollar was equivalent to between 18,000 (1980) and 180,000 (1982) pesos ley; the 1983 currency reform (resulting in the peso Argentino) divided currency values by 10,000. Where redenomination is employed, but where overall economic reform is ineffective, these large ratios persist: the Azerbaijani manat was equal to 0.06 US cents in 1994 and to 0.02 cents in 2003.
This set also includes a significant number of countries that do not drop zeros. The latter group includes Cambodia, with a riel-dollar rate ranging from 1037 to 3973 during the last fifteen years; Ecuador, which chose near-full dollarization in the face of Sucre-dollar rates of 25000; Indonesia, where 10,000 rupiah purchased a dollar in 1998; and Paraguay, with local currency-dollar rates ranging from 1,000 to 6,400 during 1989-2003. Of course, local currency ratios to the dollar do not always correlate with inflation: in some cases, ratios remain high long after inflation has been addressed. South Korea, for instance, has had single digit inflation since 1982; but the won-dollar rates have been at four digits since late 1997. As a result, policymakers in Korea discussed the possibility of currency redenomination in 2004, as did government officials in Japan at various times during the 1990s.3 And several countries presently have high-denomination (100,000 local currency units) bills in circulation Indonesia, Cambodia, Lebanon, Mozambique, Paraguay and Vietnam (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey 2004).
See appendix 4 to know about history of redenomination.

B. Rationales of Redenomination

1. Credibility, Local and Global.
Governments often are interested in establishing their credibility, specifically, in establishing a commitment to low-inflation policies Vis-à-vis their own citizens, as well as international capital markets. Enhanced credibility can improve a government’s electoral fortunes, as citizens reward economic growth and macroeconomic discipline; and it can improve a government, as treatment, as a borrower, as a location for private investment, and as a defender of an exchange rate in the eyes of global capital markets. As part of their efforts to establish credible commitments, governments in recent years often have increased the (statutory) independence of their central banks and have made explicit commitments to macroeconomic targets. For countries that seek to join regional currency areas (e.g. EMU), assuring international markets of their commitments is essential. Romania’s central bank, for instance, portrayed its redenomination as indicating that .the days of hyper-inflation are over and the new currency will help keep things that way (BBC 2005). Romania has established a goal of joining EMU by 2012, and a currency that was worth 29,890 to the dollar was seen as an impediment to doing so.
In countries where hyperinflation has occurred, governments face an uphill struggle when it comes to regaining the confidence of international markets and domestic constituents. The most direct means is through a stabilization program, which generally involves using either exchange rate-based or monetary-oriented targeting; increasing the operational independence of the central bank; and removing distortion economic policies. In many cases, such stabilization occurs the aegis of an IMF standby agreement.

2. Domestic Politics.
The use of redenomination as a means of improving credibility is ultimately an account rooted in domestic politics. Governments want to keep inflation low because they are rewarded by voters for strong economic performance, and low inflation helps the economy. Alternatively, governments want to impress international markets, as this allows them to borrow more cheaply and to attract foreign investment, which in turn facilitates government spending and domestic economic growth. All of this assumes that governments are responsive to the views of citizens, which may be truer in democracies.

3. Identity and money.
Many observers view money largely as a medium of exchange: territorial currencies are instruments that facilitate transactions in the economy and assist governments in macroeconomic management, while also providing revenue at the time of printing (seignorage). Others take a broader view of national currency: it not only facilitates economic interactions, but also affects citizens, identity and, subsequently, the legitimacy of the national government







CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

A. Conclusion
• Redenomination is the process where a "new" unit of currency replaces the "old" unit with a certain ratio.
• Almost all of developing countries had been use redenomination. Countries which have redenominated their currencies in recent years include North Korea and Zimbabwe, which used it to tackle hyperinflation, as well as Poland and Romania which had brought inflation under control and redenominated to establish the value of their currencies.
• Redenomination has a long history. And it had been proven by many nations through this world that it can be an effective solution in solve any economic problems like inflation, deflation, and stagflation. For recession, there weren’t any source that a country could be helped by redenomination reduce its effect.
• Redenomination had been a common and right solution in cut over zero nominal. Only a few countries had not adopted this policy such as Indonesia, Ghana, Mongolia, etc who had experience high inflation.
• Rationales of Redenomination consist of some reason. Some of them are credibility, local, and global, domestic policy, and also identity and money for citizens of a country.
• From other source, variables that affect redenomination policy are inflation rate, democracy, IMF pressure, exchange rate regime, repeated redenomination, and currency and identity.

B. Suggestion
• For Indonesia, the writer thinks that redenomination is a correct solution for our problems in makes our currency not to weak than others. But the Indonesian central bank must provide better information to the public in an effort to smoothen up the plan.
• Redenomination is in line with the preparation for the ASEAN economic community. If we want 1 rupiah to be valuable we have to redenominate our currency. There won’t be an inflationary effect. This way it will reduce the rounding-up of the rupiah. Now people are used to round up to thousands.















SELECTED READINGS

• Beams, Floyd A, Joseph H. Antony, and Robin P. Clement. Advance Accounting, Eighth Editions. Prentice Hall. New Jersey
• http://www.thejakartapost.com/views
• http://en.vivanews.com/
• http://economics.about.com/
• http://pancallok.blogspot.com/
• http://www.tempointeraktif.com/hg/perbankan_keuangan/2010/08/04/brk,20100804-268602,id.html
• http://data.worldbank.org/about/data-overview/methodologies
• http://financial-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/currency
• http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Currency_exchange
• http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/news_e.htm
• http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Developing_country
• http://www.nationmaster.com/cat/eco-economy
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_exchange_market
• http://www.investorwords.com/
• http://themalaysianinsider.com/
• http://www.ehow.com/list_6805077_indicators-economic-activity.html
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_GNI_%28nominal,_Atlas_method%29_per_capita
• http://www.gusbud.web.id/
• http://economics.about.com/od/globalizationtrade
• http://iwansulistyo.com/redenominasi-rupiah




APPENDIX 1
Source: Wikipedia
List of emerging and developing economies
The following are considered emerging and developing economies according to the International Monetary Fund's World Economic Outlook Report, April 2010

• Afghanistan
• Albania
• Algeria
• Angola
• Antigua and Barbuda
• Argentina
• Armenia
• Azerbaijan
• The Bahamas
• Bahrain
• Bangladesh
• Barbados
• Belarus
• Belize
• Benin
• Bhutan
• Bolivia
• Botswana
• Bosnia and Herzegovina
• Brazil
• Bulgaria
• Burkina Faso
• Burma
• Burundi
• Cameroon
• Cape Verde
• Central African Republic
• Chad
• Chile
• China
• Colombia
• Comoros
• Democratic Republic of the Congo
• Republic of the Congo
• Costa Rica
• Côte d'Ivoire
• Croatia
• Djibouti
• Dominica
• Dominican Republic
• Ecuador
• Egypt
• El Salvador
• Equatorial Guinea
• Eritrea
• Estonia
• Ethiopia
• Fiji
• Gabon
• The Gambia
• Georgia
• Ghana
• Grenada
• Guatemala
• Guinea
• Guinea-Bissau
• Guyana
• Haiti
• Honduras
• Hungary
• Indonesia
• India
• Iran
• Iraq
• Jamaica
• Jordan
• Kazakhstan
• Kenya
• Kiribati
• Kuwait
• Kyrgyzstan
• Laos
• Latvia
• Lebanon
• Lesotho
• Liberia
• Libya
• Lithuania
• Macedonia
• Madagascar
• Malawi
• Malaysia
• Maldives
• Mali
• Marshall Islands
• Mauritania
• Mauritius
• Mexico
• Federated States of Micronesia
• Moldova
• Mongolia
• Montenegro
• Morocco
• Mozambique
• Namibia
• Nauru
• Nepal
• Nicaragua
• Niger
• Nigeria
• Oman
• Pakistan
• Palau[17]
• Panama
• Papua New Guinea
• Paraguay
• Peru
• Philippines
• Poland
• Qatar
• Romania
• Russia
• Rwanda
• Saudi Arabia
• Samoa
• São Tomé and Príncipe
• Senegal
• Serbia
• Seychelles
• Sierra Leone
• Solomon Islands
• South Africa
• Somalia
• Sri Lanka
• Saint Kitts and Nevis
• Saint Lucia
• Saint Vincent and Grenadines
• Sudan
• Suriname
• Swaziland
• Syria
• Tajikistan
• Tanzania
• Thailand
• Timor-Leste
• Togo
• Tonga
• Trinidad and Tobago
• Tunisia
• Turkey
• Turkmenistan
• Tuvalu
• Uganda
• Ukraine
• United Arab Emirates
• Uruguay
• Uzbekistan
• Vanuatu
• Venezuela
• Vietnam
• Yemen
• Zambia
• Zimbabwe

Developing countries not listed by IMF

• Cuba
• North Korea

List of graduated developing economies (Four Asian Tigers and New Euro countries), now considered advanced economies

• Hong Kong (after 1997)
• Singapore (after 1997)
• South Korea (after 1997)
• Taiwan (after 1997)
• Cyprus (after 2001)
• Slovenia (after 2007)
• Malta (after 2008)
• Czech Republic (after 2009)
• Slovakia (after 2009)


APPENDIX 2
Table 1: NAME OF CURRENCY
Afghanistan afghani 100 puls Grenada dollar 100 cents Pakistan rupee 100 paisa
Albania lek 100 qindarka Guatemala quetzal 100 centavos Palau dollar 100 cents
Algeria dinar 100 centimes Guinea franc 100 centimes Panama balboa 100 centesimos
Andorra euro 100 cents Guinea-Bissau franc 100 centimes Papua New Guinea kina 100 toea
Angola kwanza 100 centavos Guyana dollar 100 cents Paraguay guarani 100 centimos
Antigua and Barbuda dollar 100 cents Haiti gourde 100 centimes Peru sol 100 centimos
Argentina peso 100 centavos Honduras lempira 100 centavos Philippines piso 100 sentimos
Armenia dram 100 lumma Hong Kong dollar 100 cents Poland zloty 100 groszy
Australia dollar 100 cents Hungary forint 100 fillers Portugal euro 100 cents
Austria euro 100 cents Iceland krona 100 aurar Qatar riyal 100 dirhams
Azerbaijan manat 100 qepiq India rupee 100 paise Romania leu 100 bani
Bahamas dollar 100 cents Indonesia rupiah 100 sen Russia ruble 100 kopeks
Bahrain dinar 1000 fils Iran rial 100 dinars Rwanda franc 100 centimes
Bangladesh taka 100 poisha Iraq dinar 1000 fils Saint Kitts and Nevis dollar 100 cents
Barbados dollar 100 cents Ireland euro 100 cents Saint Lucia dollar 100 cents
Belarus rubel 100 kapeikas Israel sheqel 100 agorot Saint Vincent and the Grenadines dollar 100 cents
Belgium euro 100 cents Italy euro 100 cents Samoa tala 100 sene
Belize dollar 100 cents Ivory Coast franc 100 centimes San Marino euro 100 cents
Benin franc 100 centimes Jamaica dollar 100 cents São Tomé and Príncipe dobra 100 centimos
Bhutan ngultrum 100 chetrum Japan yen 100 sen Saudi Arabia riyal 100 halalas
Bolivia boliviano 100 centavos Jordan dinar 100 piasters Senegal franc 100 centimes
Bosnia and Herzegovina marka 100 pfenigs Kazakhstan tenge 100 tiyin Serbia dinar 100 para
Botswana pula 100 thebe Kenya shilling 100 cents Seychelles rupee 100 cents
Brazil real 100 centavos Kiribati dollar 100 cents Sierra Leone leone 100 cents
Brunei dollar 100 sen Kuwait dinar 1000 fils Singapore dollar 100 cents
Bulgaria lev 100 stotinki Kyrgyzstan som 100 tyiyn Slovakia euro 100 cents
Burkina Faso franc 100 centimes Laos kip 100 at Slovenia euro 100 cents
Burundi franc 100 centimes Latvia lats 100 santimi Solomon Islands dollar 100 cents
Cambodia riel 100 sen Lebanon pound 100 piasters Somalia shilin 100 senti
Cameroon franc 100 centimes Lesotho loti 100 lisente South Africa rand 100 cents
Canada dollar 100 cents Liberia dollar 100 cents South Korea won 100 chon
Cape Verde escudo 100 centavos Libya dinar 100 dirhams Spain euro 100 cents
Central African Republic franc 100 centimes Liechtenstein franc 100 centimes Sri Lanka rupee 100 cents
Chad franc 100 centimes Lithuania litas 100 centas Sudan dinar 100 dirhams
Chile peso 100 centavos Luxembourg euro 100 cents Suriname dollar 100 cents
China yuan 10 jiao Macao pataca 100 avos Swaziland lilangeni 100 cents
Colombia peso 100 centavos Macedonia denar 100 deni Sweden krona 100 öre
Comoros franc 100 centimes Madagascar ariary 5 iraimbilanja Switzerland franc 100 centimes
Congo (Dem. Rep. of) franc 100 centimes Malawi kwacha 100 tambala Syria pound 100 piasters
Congo (Rep. of) franc 100 centimes Malaysia ringgit 100 sen Taiwan yuan 100 cents
Costa Rica colon 100 centimos Maldives rufiyaa 100 laari Tajikistan somoni 100 dirams
Croatia kuna 100 lipa Mali franc 100 centimes Tanzania shilling 100 cents
Cuba peso 100 centavos Malta euro 100 cents Thailand baht 100 satang
Cyprus euro 100 cents Marshall Islands dollar 100 cents Togo franc 100 centimes
Czech Republic koruna 100 halers Mauritania ouguiya 5 khoums Tonga pa'anga 100 seniti
Denmark krone 100 øre Mauritius rupee 100 cents Trinidad and Tobago dollar 100 cents
Djibouti franc 100 centimes Mexico peso 100 centavos Tunisia dinar 1000 millimes
Dominica dollar 100 cents Micronesia dollar 100 cents Turkey lira 100 kurus
Dominican Republic peso 100 centavos Moldova leu 100 bani Turkmenistan manat 100 tenge
East Timor dollar 100 cents Monaco euro 100 cents Tuvalu dollar 100 cents
Ecuador dollar 100 cents Mongolia tugrik 100 mongo Uganda shilling 100 cents
Egypt pound 100 piasters Montenegro euro 100 cents Ukraine hryvnia 100 kopiykas
El Salvador colon 100 centavos Morocco dirham 100 centimes United Arab Emirates dirham 100 fils
Equatorial Guinea franc 100 centimes Mozambique metical 100 centavos United Kingdom pound 100 pence
Eritrea nakfa 100 cents Myanmar kyat 100 pyas United States dollar 100 cents
Estonia kroon 100 senti Namibia dollar 100 cents Uruguay peso 100 centesimos
Ethiopia birr 100 cents Nauru dollar 100 cents Uzbekistan som 100 tyyn
Fiji dollar 100 cents Nepal rupee 100 paisa Vanuatu vatu
Finland euro 100 cents Netherlands euro 100 cents Vatican City euro 100 cents
France euro 100 cents New Zealand dollar 100 cents Venezuela bolivar 100 centimos
Gabon franc 100 centimes Nicaragua cordoba 100 centavos Vietnam dong 10 hao
Gambia dalasi 100 bututs Niger franc 100 centimes Yemen rial 100 fils
Georgia lari 100 tetri Nigeria naira 100 kobo Zambia kwacha 100 ngwee
Germany euro 100 cents North Korea won 100 chon Zimbabwe dollar 100 cents
Ghana cedi 100 pesewas Norway krone 100 øre
Greece euro 100 cents Oman rial 1000 baisa
Copyright © 2009 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Company

APPENDIX 3:
List of countries by Gross National Income per capita in 2009
This is a list of countries by Gross National Income per capita in 2009 at nominal values, according to the Atlas Method, an indicator of income developed by the World Bank.
Figures in italics are for 2008 or 2007. All data are in United States dollars. Non-sovereign entities or other special groupings are marked in italics.


United States (47,240$)


Australia (43,770$)


Russia (9,370$)


Brazil (8,070$)

China (3,650$)


India (1,170$)

Rank
Country / Territory
GNI (US $)

1 Monaco
203,900
2 Liechtenstein
113,210
3 Norway
84,640
4 Luxembourg
76,710
5 Channel Islands
68,610
6 Qatar
N/A
7 Bermuda
N/A
8 Switzerland
65,430
9 Denmark
59,060
10 Kuwait
43,930
11 Isle of Man
49,310
12 San Marino
50,670
13 United Arab Emirates
N/A
14 Sweden
48,840
15 Netherlands
48,460
16 Cayman Islands
N/A
17 Austria
46,450
18 United States
46,360
19 Finland
45,940
20 Macau
35,360
21 Belgium
45,270
22 Ireland
44,280
23 Australia
43,770
24 Iceland
43,430
25 France
42,620
26 Germany
42,450
27 Andorra
41,130
28 Canada
41,980
29 United Kingdom
41,370
30 Japan
38,080
31 Singapore
37,220
32 Italy
35,110
33 Greenland
32,960
34 Hong Kong
31,420
35 Spain
32,120
36 Greece
29,040
37 New Zealand
27,260
38 Cyprus
26,940
39 Bahrain
25,420
40 Israel
25,740
41 Slovenia
23,520
42 The Bahamas
21,390
43 Portugal
21,910
44 South Korea
19,830
45 Malta
16,690
46 Oman
17,890
47 Saudi Arabia
17,700
48 Czech Republic
17,310
48 Trinidad and Tobago
16,700
50 Slovakia
16,130
51 Estonia
14,060
52 Croatia
13,720
53 Hungary
12,980
54 Equatorial Guinea
12,420
55 Latvia
12,390
56 Poland
12,260
57 Antigua and Barbuda
12,130
58 Libya
12,020
59 Lithuania
11,410
60 Venezuela
10,150
61 Saint Kitts and Nevis
10,090
62 Chile
9,470
63 Russian Federation
9,340
64 Uruguay
9,010
65 Mexico
8,960
66 Turkey
8,720
67 Seychelles
8,480
68 Romania
8,330
69 Lebanon
8,060
70 Brazil
8,040
71 Argentina
7,550
72 Gabon
7,370
73 Malaysia
7,350
74 Mauritius
7,250
75 Kazakhstan
6,920
76 Montenegro
6,550
77 Panama
6,570
78 Botswana
6,260
79 Costa Rica
6,260
80 Palau
6,220
81 Bulgaria
6,060
82 Serbia
6,000
83 South Africa
5,760
84 Grenada
5,580
85 Belarus
5,560
86 Saint Lucia
5,190
87 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
5,130
88 Colombia
4,990
89 Dominica
4,900
90 Suriname
4,760
91 Azerbaijan
4,840
92 Bosnia and Herzegovina
4,700
93 Jamaica
4,590
94 Dominican Republic
4,550
95 Iran
4,530
96 Algeria
4,420
97 Macedonia
4,400
98 Namibia
4,270
99 Peru
4,200
100 Albania
4,000
101 Jordan
3,980
102 Ecuador
3,970
103 Maldives
3,970
104 Fiji
3,840
105 Belize
3,740
106 Thailand
3,760
107 Angola
3,750
108 Tunisia
3,720
109 China
3,650
110 Turkmenistan
3,420
111 El Salvador
3,370
112 Tonga
3,260
113 Kosovo
3,240
114 Armenia
3,100
115 Marshall Islands
3,060
116 Cape Verde
3,010
117 Samoa
2,840
118 Ukraine
2,800
119 Morocco
2,790
120 Guatemala
2,620
121 Vanuatu
2,620
122 Georgia
2,530[4]

123 Timor-Leste
2,460[1]

124 Syria
2,410
125 Swaziland
2,350
126 Paraguay
2,270
127 Indonesia
2,230
128 Federated States of Micronesia
2,220
129 Iraq
2,210
130 Egypt
2,070
131 Bhutan
2,020
132 Sri Lanka
1,990
133 Kiribati
1,890
134 Republic of the Congo
1,830
135 Honduras
1,820
136 Philippines
1,790
137 Mongolia
1,630
138 Bolivia
1,620
139 Moldova
1,590
140 Guyana
1,450
141 Djibouti
1,280
142 Sudan
1,220
143 India
1,180
143 Papua New Guinea
1,180
145 Cameroon
1,170
146 Nigeria
1,140
146 São Tomé and Príncipe
1,140
148 Uzbekistan
1,100
149 Côte d'Ivoire
1,060
149 Yemen
1,060
151 Lesotho
1,030
151 Senegal
1,030
153 Pakistan
1,020
154 Vietnam
1,010
155 Nicaragua
1,000
156 Zambia
970
157 Mauritania
960
158 Solomon Islands
910
159 Laos
880
160 Comoros
870
160 Kyrgyz
870
162 Kenya
770
163 Benin
750
164 Ghana
700
164 Tajikistan
700
166 Mali
680
167 Cambodia
650
168 Chad
620
169 Bangladesh
590
170 Burkina Faso
510
170 Guinea-Bissau
510
172 Tanzania
500
173 Rwanda
460
173 Uganda
460
175 Central African Republic
450
176 The Gambia
440
176 Mozambique
440
176 Nepal
440
176 Togo
440
180 Madagascar
420
181 Afghanistan
370
182 Guinea
370
183 Niger
340
183 Sierra Leone
340
185 Ethiopia
330
186 Eritrea
300
187 Malawi
280
188 Democratic Republic of the Congo
160
188 Liberia
160
190 Burundi
150























APPENDIX 4
Table 2: Inflationary Episodes and Redenomination Outcomes
Country Years & Annual Inflation Rates Redenomination?
Albania 1992 (226%) No
Angola 1992 (299%), 1993 (1379%), 1994 (949%), 1995 (2672%), 1996 (4145%), 1997-2002 (average, 194%). Yes, 1995.
Argentina 1975-1982; average annual rate 267% Yes, 1983.
Argentina 1983 (344%), 1984 (627%), 1985 (672%) Yes, 1985.
Argentina 1987, 1988, 1989 (3080%), 1990 (2314%), 1991 (172%) Yes, 1992.
Armenia 1994 (4962%), 1995 (176%) No.
Azerbaijan 1992 (912%), 1993 (1129%), 1994 (1665%), 1995 (412%) Yes, 1992.
Belarus 1993 (1190%), 1994 (2221%), 1995 (709%) Yes, 1992.
Belarus 1999 (294%), 2000 (169%) Yes, 2000.
Bolivia 1981-1986; peaked at 11749% in 1985. Yes, 1987.
Brazil 1981-1985, average annual rate 151%. Yes, 1986.
Brazil 1986 (147%), 1987 (228%), 1988 (629%), 1989 (1431%) Yes, 1989.
Brazil 1990 (2948%), 1991 (433%), 1992 (952%), 1993 (1928%), 1994 (2076%) Yes, 1993 and 1994.
Bulgaria 1991 (338%), 1996 (122%), 1997 (1058%) Yes, 1999.
Chile 1973 (362%), 1974 (505%), 1975 (375%), 1976 (212%) Yes, 1975.
Congo, Dem. Rep. 1979 (101%), 1989 (104%), 1991 (2154%), 1992 (4129%), 1993 (1987%) Yes, 1993.
Congo, Dem. Rep. 1994 (23773%), 1995 (542%), 1996 (542%), 1997 (176%) Yes, 1998.
Congo, Dem. Rep. 1999 (285%), 2000 (514%), 2001 (360%) No.
Croatia 1992 (625%), 1993 (1500%), 1994 (107%) Yes, 1994.
Georgia 1995 (163%) Yes, 1995.
Ghana 1977 (116%), 1981 (117%), 1983 (123%) No.
Indonesia 1962 (131%), 1963 (146%), 1964 (109%), 1965 (307%), 1966 (1136%), 1967 (106%), 1968 (129%) No.
Israel 1980 (131%), 1981 (117%), 1982 (120%), 1983 (146%), 1984 (374%), 1985 (305%) Yes, 1980 and 1985.
Kazakhstan 1994 (1877%), 1995 (176%) No.
Laos 1999 (128%) No.
Latvia 1992 (243%), 1993 (109%) Yes, 1993.
Lebanon 1987 (488%), 1988 (128%) No.
Lithuania 1993 (410%) Yes, 1993.
Macedonia 1994 (126%) Yes, 1993.
Mexico 1983 (102%), 1987 (132%), 1988 (114%) Yes, 1993.
Mongolia 1993 (268%) No.
Nicaragua 1985-1991. Highest in 1989 (4770%), 1990 (7485%) and 1991 (2945%) Yes, 1998.

Thursday 24 March 2011

SAPARDI DJOKO DAMONO

Pertama kalinya dengar nama Sapardi Djoko Damono itu saat ada STAN fest 2010. Salah satu rangkaian acaranya dibikin oleh aksara. Saya suka sastra, saya suka puisi, tapi tak terlalu. Wajar-wajar saja dan wajarlah kalau saya juga agak malas datang ke acara tersebut kalau-kalau tidak ada kue gratis yang dibagikan (maklum anak kos, selalu sigap mengambil peluang. Haha..)
Dan ternyata.. Subhanallah, luar biasa karya-karya beliau.
Apalagi ternyata puisi beliau bisa dimusikalisasi. Saat itu, teman-teman dari aksara feat STAN music community membawakan beberapa karya beliau dengan diiringi gitar akustik dan flute vokalisnya yang imut membuat saya sangat bersyukur telah mengincar dadar gulung dan risoles di sana.
Ini dia, beberapa kumpulan puisi pak Sapardi Djoko Damono:

SAJAK KECIL TENTANG CINTA

mencintai angin harus menjadi siut
mencintai air harus menjadi ricik
mencintai gunung harus menjadi terjal
mencintai api harus menjadi jilat
mencintai cakrawala harus menebas jarak
mencintaiMu harus menjadi aku


PADA SUATU HARI NANTI

pada suatu hari nanti
jasadku tak akan ada lagi
tapi dalam bait-bait sajak ini
kau takkan kurelakan sendiri

pada suatu hari nanti
suaraku tak terdengar lagi
tapi di antara larik-larik sajak ini
kau akan tetap kusiasati

pada suatu hari nanti
impianku pun tak dikenal lagi
namun di sela-sela huruf sajak ini
kau takkan letih-letihnya kucari

NOKTURNO

KUBIARKAN CAHAYA BINTANG MEMILIKIMU
KUBIARKAN ANGIN YANG PUCAT
DAN TAK HABIS-HABISNYA
GELISAH

TIBA-TIBA MENJELMA ISYARAT, MEREBUTMU
ENTAH KAPAN KAU BISA KUTANGKAP…

KETIKA JARI-JARI BUNGA TERLUKA

Ketika Jari-jari bunga terluka
mendadak terasa betapa sengit, cinta kita
cahaya bagai kabut, kabut cahaya
di langit menyisih awan hari ini
di bumi meriap sepi yang purba
ketika kemarau terasa ke bulu-bulu mata

suatu pagi, di sayap kupu-kupu
disayap warna, suara burung
di ranting-ranting cuaca
bulu-bulu cahaya
betapa parah cinta kita
mabuk berjalan diantara
jerit bunga-bunga rekah…

Ketika Jari-jari bunga terbuka
mendadak terasa betapa sengit, cinta kita
cahaya bagai kabut, kabut cahaya
di langit menyisih awan hari ini
di bumi meriap sepi yang purba
ketika kemarau terasa ke bulu-bulu mata

HUTAN KELABU

kau pun kekasihku
langit di mana berakhir setiap pandangan
bermula kepedihan rindu itu
temaram kepadaku semata
memutih dari seribu warna
hujan senandung dalam hutan
lalu kelabu menabuh nyanyian

HUJAN BULAN JUNI

tak ada yang lebih tabah
dari hujan bulan juni
dirahasiakannya rintik rindunya
kepada pohon berbunga itu

tak ada yang lebih bijak
dari hujan bulan juni
dihapusnya jejak-jejak kakinya
yang ragu-ragu di jalan itu

tak ada yang lebih arif
dari hujan bulan juni
dibiarkannya yang tak terucapkan
diserap akar pohon bunga itu

HATIKU SELEMBAR DAUN

hatiku selembar daun melayang jatuh di rumput;
nanti dulu, biarkan aku sejenak terbaring di sini;
ada yang masih ingin kupandang, yang selama ini senantiasa luput;
sesaat adalah abadi sebelum kausapu tamanmu setiap pagi.

Perahu Kertas,
Kumpulan Sajak,
1982.

GADIS KECIL

Ada gadis kecil diseberangkan gerimis
di tangan kanannya bergoyang payung
tangan kirinya mengibaskan tangis
di pinggir padang,ada pohon
dan seekor burung…

DALAM DIRIKU

dalam diriku mengalir
sungai panjang
darah namanya…

dalam diriku menggenang
telaga darah
sukma namanya…

dalam diriku meriak
gelombang suara
hidup namanya…

dan karena hidup itu indah
aku menangis sepuas-puasnya…

DALAM BIS

langit di kaca jendela bergoyang
terarah ke mana wajah di kaca jendela
yang dahulu juga
mengecil dalam pesona

sebermula adalah kata
baru perjalanan dari kota ke kota
demikian cepat
kita pun terperanjat
waktu henti ia tiada…

BUAT NING

pasti datangkah semua yang ditunggu
detik-detik berjajar pada mistar yang panjang
barangkali tanpa salam terlebih dahulu

januari mengeras di tembok itu juga
lalu desember…
musim pun masak sebelum menyala cakrawala
tiba-tiba kita bergegas pada jemputan itu

AKU INGIN

Aku ingin mencintaimu dengan sederhana:
dengan kata yang tak sempat diucapkan
kayu kepada api yang menjadikannya abu

Aku ingin mencintaimu dengan sederhana:
dengan isyarat yang tak sempat disampaikan
awan kepada hujan yang menjadikannya tiada

RAINBOW TROOPS

kangen teman-teman madrasahku..
mereka,
seperti pelangi..
tujuh orang-tujuh warna.
merah,
jingga,
kuning,
hijau,
biru,
nila,
dan ungu.
tertanam dalam cakrawala bercampur mega yang malu-malu muncul karena awan sisa hujan enggan mengakhiri pancaroba.




Ketika film laskar pelangi diputar di bioskop beberapa tahun lalu, saya berfikir kenapa kesepuluh anak Belitong itu dinamai “laskar pelangi” oleh Andrea Hirata. Saya tidak mampu menemukan jawaban yang meyakinkan dalam film tersebut. Oleh karena itu, saya mencari novelnya, yang biasanya versi novel memaparkan lebih komprehensif dan tidak terpotong di banyak bagian penting-tapi kurang menjual untuk difilemkan. Kalau tidak salah karena suatu hari mereka lagi main-main di padang rumput tepi pantai. Lalu ada pelangi, mereka semua sedang memandang pelangi. Lalu ibu Mus, guru mereka, cari-cari mereka. Lalu dipanggillah mereka dengan “laskar pelangi”. Ah, maaf ya para penggemar Andrea Hirata, saya mendeskripsikan satu alur cerita dalam novel yang bestseller itu dengan asal-asalan karena saya tak terlalu paham dengan banyak bagian dalam buku ini, sampai sekarang.

Filosofi pertama yang saya coba buat adalah mungkin mereka berjumlah tujuh orang murid, tapi ternyata salah.

Kenapa bisa berfilosofi demikian? Terus terang hal ini langsung mengingatkan saya pada pengalaman pribadi.

Waktu kecil, tentu saya tidak berfikir SD/MI mana yang ingin saya masuki. saya disekolahkan ibu di madrasah milik teman kakek yang ada di dekat rumah. Saat itu hanya ada 8 pendaftar di sana. Sekolah ini semakin redup saja setelah dua angkatan sebelumnya hanya mendapatkan 11 dan 14 peminat. Ya, madrasah ini kalah bersaing dengan SD tetangganya. Entah apa alasan para orang tua di desa saya begitu enggan memilih sekolah ini tepatnya.

Saya masih lebih beruntung ketimbang kakakku. Pada jamannya, malah hanya ada 4 pendaftar. Kepala sekolahnya lalu dengan berat hati menyuruh mereka berempat untuk pindah ke SD dengan alasan tidak memenuhi kuota ujian nasional.

Memang, sebagian besar keluarga kami disekolahkan di sana atas kehendak mbah kakung saya. Kata beliau “biar agamanya dapat, meski sedikit. Selepasnya, terserah orang tuamu mau disekolahkan dimana”. Heu, kangen mbah kakung..T.T

Delapan orang itu salah satunya adik sepupu saya. Keluarganya (pak lek dan bu lek) baru pindah rumah dekat rumah ibuku. Ia baru lima tahun saat itu. Harusnya masuk TK dulu, tapi ia nggak mau. Maunya jadi satu dengan saya. Jadinya, kami selalu kemana-mana bersama-sama. Senang sekali kalau nilai ulangannya dapat jelek. Saya bisa punya senjata untuk menakut-nakutinya dengan melaporkan ke ibunya. Haha. Pun berlaku sebaliknya. Nah, kalau nilai kami berdua sama jeleknya, kami membuat sebuah MoU (ceile bahasanya..) dengan membuang hasil ujiannya ke sungai dan mengatakan “ndak ada ujian” ke orang tua kami.
Satu orang lagi pas kelas empat, tidak mau meneruskan sekolah. Katanya nggak mau sekolah lagi. Dulu awal-awal dia senang bolos, kami selalu menjemputnya beramai-ramai. Setiap hari!!

Lalu, apa saja yang kami lakukan dengan tujuh orang saja sekelas?
Haha, tak cukup pastinya untuk diceritakan di sini.
Yang jelas, waktu kami kebagian menjadi petugas upacara bendera hari senin, semuanya menduduki jabatan penting. 3 pengibar, 1 pemimpin upacara, 1 pembaca doa, 1 protokoler, 1 dirigen, dan 1 MC. Ups, itu delapan ya? Berarti kami selalu menaturalisasi satu orang dari kelas lain.

Bagaimana kalau waktunya mengaso (istirahat)? Ya, kami keluyuran kemana-mana bertujuh. Sering kami main di empang belakang sekolah sampai basah kuyup, atau mencari jamur di kebun pisang dekat sawah. Lalu memasaknya (baca: digongseng) langsung di rumahku. Saya baru tahu saat SMA, ternyata banyak juga jamur yang beracun. Alhamdulillah sampai saat ini kami bertujuh masih sehat wal afiat.

Kalau ada yang telat, kami berbondong-bondong menjemputnya. Kadang ada yang masih belum bangun, lalu kami menungguinya sampai selesai mandi dan berangkat bareng-bareng. Jadinya, jadwal masuk kami fleksibel. Menunggu sampai semuanya sudah hadir.
Karena bangku dan kursi di kelas ada 40 an, maka kami bebas memilih tempat duduk, tapi tetap sih, seringnya kami duduk bergerombol.

Apa yang terjadi dengan kami selanjutnya? Setelah tamat madrasah? Saat ini? Err, insya Alloh disambung lain kali ya.. sudah malam. :D

Monday 7 March 2011

TIME LAG SERIES

satu..

Suatu jumat siang, saya sedang bergegas pulang ke kosan dengan salah satu sahabat yang se-arah. Dia berasal dari medan. Entahlah, semua orang sumatera utara hampir selalu bilang “medan” ketika ditanya asal daerahnya. Padahal ketika kulihat di peta, provinsi itu gak kalah besar dengan jawa timur yang punya 33 kota. Oh, mungkin ini adalah majas totem pro parte yang mereka gunakan untuk menggeneralisasi seluruh wilayah sumut. Namun ternyata tidak juga. Salah seorang kawanku pernah bilang saat ditanya alasan kenapa selalu mengaku asli medan... jawabnya, “ya, iya kalo kota di jawa, ketika orang bilang mojokerto, orang lain udah pada tau.. lha kalo serdang bedagai, atau pematang siantar, atau samosir? Tau kau?” tanyanya sambil berapi-api (efek dramatisasi). Haha, iya juga, pikirku sambil mengerutkan dahi mengingat tebakan dosen yang sering salah ketika mengatakan bahwa mojokerto ada di jabar (purwakarta-red) atau jateng (purwokerto-red).

Balik lagi ke topik. Nah, di tengah ketergesa-gesaan kami karena saat itu hampir pukul 12 dan adzan jumat sudah akan berkumandang, tiba-tiba hape nya berdering. Kawannya dari “medan” telfon. Dibilangnya, “wah, sori bro, aku lagi buru-buru solat jumat nih, ntar aja ya kutelfon balik”.

Ternyata di sana masih belum saatnya siap-siap ke masjid. Katanya solat jumat itu sekitar pukul 13.00 atau bahkan kadang lebih.

Dari percakapan singkat itu saya baru sadar ternyata perbedaan waktu karena perbedaan lokasi benar-benar nyata. Kupikir hanya bahan hafalan saat SD dulu yang tidak applied untuk kehidupan sehari-hari. Bahwa Indonesia terbagi ke dalam tiga zona waktu memang sudah kutahu, tapi belum kupahami betul sampai saat itu.

Thursday 3 March 2011

TOP RECOMMENDED!

saking cintanya dengan kereta ini, kosan kami di ceger, STAN, bernama GBM. Oh, you are really part of my life...

Kereta api Gaya Baru Malam Selatan

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Gaya Baru Malam Selatan atau biasa disingkat GBMS merupakan kereta kelas ekonomi dengan relasi Stasiun Jakarta Kota - Stasiun Surabaya Gubeng melewati Stasiun Lempuyangan Yogyakarta. Jarak yang ditempuh sekitar 825 km.
Dalam sekali jalan, biasanya kereta ini ditarik menggunakan loko CC201 dan membawa 10 K3 (gerbong ekonomi) dan satu KMP3 (kereta makan dan pembangkit kelas tiga).
Kereta ekonomi ini berhenti di beberapa stasiun besar, antara lain, Stasiun Pasar Senen, Stasiun Jatinegara, Stasiun Bekasi, Stasiun Cirebon, Stasiun Purwokerto,Stasiun Karanganyar,Stasiun Kebumen, Stasiun Lempuyangan, Stasiun Solo Jebres, Stasiun Madiun, dan Stasiun Wonokromo.Stasiun Wates lansung.
Jadwal Gaya Baru Malam Selatan - KA 144 - (Pasar Senen - Surabaya Gubeng)
Stasiun Waktu Kedatangan Waktu Keberangkatan
Jakarta Kota - 12.00
Pasar Senen 12.12 12.20
Jatinegara 12.30 12.32
Bekasi 12.47 12.49
Karawang 13.23 13.25
Pegadenbaru 14.22 14.24
Jatibarang 15.14 15.16
Cirebon Prujakan 15.51 16.00
Purwokerto 18.17 18.22
Kroya 18.50 18.52
Karanganyar 19.16 19.22
Kebumen 19.49 19.52
Kutoarjo 20.27 20.30
Lempuyangan 21.27 21.32
Klaten 21.54 21.56
Solo Jebres 22.30 22.35
Sragen 22.59 23.01
Madiun 00.13 00.17
Nganjuk 01.07 01.09
Kertosono 01.37 01.40
Jombang 02.04 02.06
Mojokerto 02.29 02.32
Wonokromo 03.09 03.11
Surabaya Gubeng 03.17 -
Jadwal Gaya Baru Malam Selatan - KA 143 - (Surabaya Gubeng - Jakarta Kota)
Stasiun Waktu Kedatangan Waktu Keberangkatan
Surabaya Gubeng - 14.00
Wonokromo 14.06 12.10
Mojokerto 14.47 14.49
Jombang 15.12 15.15
Kertosono 15.39 15.42
Nganjuk 16.10 16.12
Madiun 17.17 17.21
Paron 17.49 17.59
Sragen 18.47 18.49
Solo Jebres 19.15 19.35
Klaten 20.09 20.12
Lempuyangan 20.35 20.58
Kutoarjo 20.28 20.33
Kebumen 21.07 21.22
Karanganyar 21.43 21.45
Kroya 22.15 22.17
Purwokerto 22.30 22.35
Ciledug 01.42 01.58
Cirebon 02.25 02.35
Karawang 05.30 05.32
Jatinegara 06.02 06.05
Pasar Senen 06.25 06.27
Jakarta Kota 06.31 -